I'm tired of the testosterone hormone as cultural myth, as a shorthand for machismo, wildness and obnoxiousness. Sick of the omnipresent references to "testosterone poisoning" and "testosterone-fueled whatever" and the feminist's personal favourite "testosterone-crazed oppressors". As if being a holder of testosterone is a bad thing, will make you violent, rude and irrational person.
The thought that it was a deficiency of testosterone, rather than its excess, that could lead to all the negative behaviors normally associated with the androgen came about at the Endocrine Society in 1995.
The study consisted of a group of 54 so-called hypogonadal men, who for a variety of reasons were low in testosterone, Dr. Christina Wang of the University of California in Los Angeles and her colleagues, found that before treatment, they showed a collection of negative emotions. They described feelings of edginess, anger, irritability and aggression; until the men were given testosterone replacement therapy, and were asked to complete questionnaires about their moods several times over the course of two months of treatment, their general sense of well-being improved markedly. Their anger and agitation decreased, and their outlook and friendliness heightened.
"Every parameter we looked at went in the same direction," Dr. Wang said. "The positive mood increased, the negative mood decreased."
Dr. Willis K. Samson, a professor and chairman of physiology at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, said, "Testosterone has been given such a negative knock. Work like this helps show the up side of this very important male hormone." The commonly held belief that testosterone produces antisocial behavior "may be a misconception," he added.
Dr. Wang's work stays consistent with similar findings from other laboratories that question how relevant testosterone is to human aggression. Some studies even indicate another, improbable source of aggression: estrogen. The female hormone.
I am coming to a hypothesis that it is no coincidence that black males are a minority, yet they take up the majority of the prison population and commit violent crimes much more frequently and much violently than Mestizos and white males. They have higher estadiol levels than both Mestizos and white males.
Serum estrogen, but not testosterone, levels differ between black and white men in a nationally representative sample of Americans.
Rohrmann S, Nelson WG, Rifai N, Brown TR, Dobs A, Kanarek N, Yager JD, Platz EA.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
* J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul;92(7):2433-5.
CONTEXT: Higher testosterone in black compared with white men has been postulated to explain their higher prostate cancer incidence. Previous studies comparing hormone levels by race might have been limited by size, restricted age variation, or lack of representation of the general population.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare serum testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG concentrations among non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Mexican-American men. PARTICIPANTS, DESIGN, AND
SETTING: A total of 1413 men aged 20+ yr and who attended the morning examination session of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 1988-1991 were included in this cross-sectional study.
MEASUREMENT: Serum hormone concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays.
RESULTS: After applying sampling weights and adjusting for age, percent body fat, alcohol, smoking, and activity, testosterone concentrations were not different between non-Hispanic blacks (n = 363; geometric mean, 5.29 ng/ml) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 674; 5.11 ng/ml; P > 0.05) but were higher in Mexican-Americans (n = 376; 5.48 ng/ml; P < 0.05). Non-Hispanic blacks (40.80 pg/ml) had a higher estradiol concentration than non-Hispanic whites (35.46 pg/ml; P < 0.01) and Mexican-Americans (34.11 pg/ml; P < 0.01). Non-Hispanic blacks (36.49 nmol/liter) had a higher SHBG concentration than non-Hispanic whites (34.91 nmol/liter; P < 0.05) and Mexican-Americans (35.04 nmol/liter; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the postulated racial difference, [highlight]testosterone concentrations did not differ notably between black and white men. However, blacks had higher estradiol levels. Mexican-Americans had higher testosterone than whites but similar estradiol and SHBG concentrations[/highlight]. Given these findings, it may be equally if not more important to investigate estradiol as testosterone in relation to diseases with racial disparity.
Estradiol is the predominant sex hormone present in females. It is also present in males, being produced as an active metabolic product of testosterone. It represents the major estrogen in humans. Estradiol has not only a critical impact on reproductive and sexual functioning, but also affects other organs including the bones.
Now it is no coincidence that females often initiate domestic violence towards their partners, have more mood swings than males and act more irrational than males in many situations and in arguments.
A 2000 study by J. Archer revealed that women are somewhat more likely to initiate relationship violence than men, as well as sustain injuries from men:
Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression to heterosexual partners and in its physical consequences are reported. Women were slightly more likely (d = -.05) than men to use one or more act of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently. Men were more likely (d = .15) to inflict an injury, and overall, 62% of those injured by a partner were women. The findings partially support previous claims that different methods of measurement produce conflicting results, but there was also evidence that the sample was an important moderator of effect size. Continuous models showed that younger aged dating samples and a lower proportion of physically aggressive males predicted effect sizes in the female direction. Analyses were limited by the available database, which is biased toward young dating samples in the United States. Wider variations are discussed in terms of two conflicting norms about physical aggression to partners that operate to different degrees in different cultures.
Now before you pick out this,
"Men were more likely (d = .15) to inflict an injury, and overall, 62% of those injured by a partner were women."
That's what fucking happens when you pick a fight with someone who can break your fucking teeth. The article says that women respond with physical aggression in a domestic dispute more often than men, which means that they are more likely to initiate relationship violence.